Whenever law enforcement is engaging in a search and seizure, there are a number of rules, and exceptions, that apply to minimize the risk of an illegal search and seizure. These rules are derived directly from the U.S. Constitution, specifically the Fourth Amendment, as well as court opinions. Because of the broad range of rules that can apply to searches and seizures, a number of questions can often arise. Below are some of the most commonly asked questions regarding your rights when police search you, your home or your car.
In general, a court will ask the following 2 questions to determine whether a police investigation turned into a search.
For an investigation to turn into a search, a court must conclude that the investigation impinged or intruded upon a person's "legitimate expectation of privacy." This is found when the answers to the above two questions are yes. If either question can be answered in the negative, meaning that the person being search either did not have something to keep private, or if the expectation of privacy was not reasonable, then there was no "search" for purposes of the Fourth Amendment.
Property that is within your house or on your property is generally considered to be private. If the police have to enter onto your property in order to get a look at evidence that they wish to use in court, they generally need a search warrant to do so. However, there are certain situations, like stopping suspects from destroying evidence, in which police can search and seize your property in your home without a warrant. This is because the situation itself demands prompt action by the police.
So, now that we have the general rule, what does this mean for you? In most situations, law enforcement officers are allowed to take photographs from the air above your home, or can eavesdrop on your conversations in order to get enough information to get a warrant. When listening to conversations, however, police cannot use hi-tech equipment in either of these circumstances without rendering the eavesdropping an illegal search and seizure.
Generally speaking, the more sophisticated the listening or photography equipment, the more likely it will be that the police will be required to obtain a warrant before conducting their search. If you consent to an officer searching your home, however, you waive any right to challenge a warrantless search later on if evidence is discovered. Additionally, if an officer is on your property for a legitimate reason (perhaps pursuing a felon), any contraband that is in plain sight of the officer is fair game to be seized, even without a search warrant.
A search warrant is an order issued by a judge or magistrate that gives permission and authorizes the police or other law enforcement agency to conduct a search of a location or person and to seize any evidence of a criminal offense. The search warrant is addressed to the person to be searched or to the person who owns the premises to be searched and informs the addressee that the judge issuing the warrant has found it reasonably likely that certain evidence may be found there.
Generally speaking, law enforcement agencies must apply for a search warrant before conducting a search of the person or premise in issue. If any search is conducted in the absence of a search warrant, it is presumed to be unreasonable and will likely be ruled an illegal search and seizure. If a challenge to such a search is made, the officials conducting the search will have to explain and justify their reasons for the search, as well as explain why a warrant was not issued.
The police must normally make a minimum showing to the judge issuing the search warrant in order for the judge to make the decision to grant the order. Police have to show the judge that:
In order to make this showing, police will need to give information that is either based upon their own observations or the observations of others, including informants. If the police rely solely upon the observations of others when applying for a search warrant, they must be able to prove to the judge that the information is reliable. This could mean anything from police corroboration of the secondhand observations, or the past, reliable history of observations from a named informant.
A search warrant gives the police the legal authority to enter a premise without permission of the owner to search for the evidence listed in the warrant in the places authorized by the warrant. For example, if the search warrant allows the police to search the bathroom of a home for illegal drugs, then the police should confine their search to the bathroom.
There are certain exceptions to this search warrant rule which routinely allow police to conduct a wider-spanning search than allowed by the search warrant. In general, police can search beyond the scope of the search warrant in order to ensure their own safety as well as the safety of others. In addition, police can search widely to stop the destruction of evidence, look for evidence beyond the scope of the original search warrant because their initial search revealed that there may be additional evidence in other locations on the property, or to find more evidence based upon what is in plain view.
As you may have guessed from reading above, the answer to this question is no. Not every warrantless search is an illegal search and seizure. Here are some of the main examples in which police or other law enforcement agencies do not need a search warrant to conduct a search:
Generally speaking, the person in charge of an area has the power to give permission to the police to search the area. So, if you share an apartment with a roommate, your roommate probably has the power to give permission to the police to search common areas in the apartment, like the living room or the kitchen, but not your personal bedroom.
Likewise, your landlord cannot give permission to the police to search any part of your apartment, except places like a communal common area, like a washer/dryer room in an apartment building. However, you should keep in mind that it is not an illegal search and seizure if the police search your apartment without any permission if they feel that the search is an emergency.
In general, the police are allowed to search and frisk you if they have a reasonable suspicion that you are armed during a traffic stop. This is not an illegal search and seizure. In addition to frisking for weapons, the police can also pat you down for contraband material, like drugs. An important Supreme Court ruling altered the laws that allow a police officer to search a car after a traffic stop. The Court ruled that a search of the passenger compartment of a car is only allowed if either:
In short, yes. If the police have towed and impounded your car, they have the authority to search your vehicle. This search can be as comprehensive as the police wish and will most likely include opening any locked compartments or boxes found within your car. It does not matter what your car was towed and impounded for, it could be for something as simple as a parking violation or as serious as auto-theft. Regardless, the police can search your car if it has been impounded.
Police cannot tow and impound your car for the sole purpose of searching it, however, and must follow strict procedures when it comes to these types of searches.
Even if a police search or seizure doesn't immediately result in criminal charges, you may still need the assistance of a criminal defense attorney. An attorney can help you determine whether your rights were violated and can also protect you if charges are brought down the road. To find out more, contact a local criminal defense attorney to discuss your specific situation and get personalized legal advice.